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History: The 360 Spider is Ferrari’s 20th road-going convertible and is a record breaker in two quit : 348 TB-with just 11,000 miles

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  • 1993
  • (11,000 Miles)
  • Red
  • Cream hide with dark red carpets
  • 5 Speed Manual
  • V-8.3.4 litre Four valves per cylinder
  • 171 mph
  • 300bhp @7,200 rpm
  • L.4230mm W.1894mm

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Vehicle Highlights
One of the 130 officially imported with just 68 remainingFront batteryDry sumpClimate controlBosch Motronic 2.7

Vehicle Description

History: The 360 Spider is Ferrari’s 20th road-going convertible and is a record breaker in two quite different ways. It was also the best spider ever built at Maranello pre-2000 in terms of its technical content, styling and performance.
FERRARI’S 20TH ROAD-GOING CONVERTIBLE
In fact, this was the most technologically advanced spider in the world at the time of its launch thanks to the exclusive transfer of features derived directly from Ferrari’s experiences on the Formula 1 track.


Despite its 400-hp V8 engine’s mid-position (five valves per cylinder), the Ferrari technicians still managed to design a hood that folded away automatically inside the engine bay and guaranteed its superb purity of line. This was further underscored by two fairings in the bodywork to the rear of the seats which evoke memories of Ferrari’s classic sports cars and the roll-bars that guaranteed a safe ride for driver and passenger.
The work done on the chassis focused on delivering maximum static and dynamic rigidity. The sills were reinforced too, the front part of the floor pan was stiffened, and the windshield structure redesigned. The rear bulkhead too was stiffened to dampen engine noise. The 360 Spider’s structural prowess and dynamic response set a whole new chassis-bodywork benchmark for drop-top cars, in fact. The 360 Spider’s lucky occupants were enclosed in a very strong protective crash cage completed by two tubular steel roll bars which were an actually part of the drop-top system. Together with the strengthened windscreen frame, these guaranteed significant protection in case of a roll-over. The 360 Spider had the same suspension as the coupé (double wishbone suspension front and rear) with the same antidive and antisquat geometries. Rolling and pitching were reduced to an absolute minimum and the 360 Spider proved extraordinarily precise entering corners.
The 360 Spider’s running gear was exactly the same as the berlinetta’s: a mid-rear 3586 cc V8 that punched out 400 hp at 8,500 rpm with a longitudinal gearbox in unit with the differential. The result was that both on the track and on the road the 360 Spider delivered almost identical speeds to the Modena. When the top was up or down, it could exceed 290 km/h, in fact. It was barely 60 kg heavier than its berlinetta counterpart but had the same boot space and cabin space.



Retaining the aerodynamic efficiency of the berlinetta was just one of engineers’ goals with the 360 Spider. This was achieved by using twin radiators and an undertray to channel air beneath the car to extractors under its tail. Long hours spent in the wind tunnel also meant that even though it didn’t have a spoiler or wings, it still delivered downforce of over 170 Kg at maximum speed, just 10 less than the berlinetta. This downforce figure was achieved by adding a Formula 1-derived nolder on the leading edge of the tail. The Cd went the berlinetta’s 0.33 to 0.36 in the Spider, well within normal range for a drop-top car.
Taken from Ferrari’s own website
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At the International Geneva Motor Show held in March 1999 Ferrari introduced its newest model, the 360 Modena. With V8 engined Ferraris accounting for almost two-thirds of total Ferrari production each year, the appearance of an all-new model in this configuration is extremely important to the Modenese firm.

While it continues the lineage of the 308, 328, 348 and F355, the new 360 Modena is all new, a car that Ferrari states was “planned for the new millennium”. Their objectives were to design a car with superior performance across the board, with innovative technical and aerodynamic features; provide new standards of space, comfort and ease of access; significantly reduce the car’s weight; and maintain the character and personality of a true sporting mid-engined Ferrari.

To achieve these goals for the 360 Modena meant that the project team, managed by Maurizio Manfredini, had to design the whole car from scratch, adopting new materials and construction methods. The single most important element of this redesign, a first for a Ferrari road car, was the extensive use of aluminium, not just for the body shell, but also for the chassis and other components.

Fortunately the specialists at Ferrari could call on years of research and experimentation with the use of aluminium dating back to the Formula One cars of the early 1970s. The main benefit of the all-aluminium chassis and bodyshell is a reduction on the car’s dry weight of 100kg (220lbs) compared to the F355 - despite the fact that the 360 Modena is actually larger plus a significant improvement in structural rigidity.

Styling

The styling of the new car is by Pininfarina, who have been designing cars for Ferrari since 1952. The 360 Modena brings the total number of Ferrari models designed by Pininfarina to 163. In the modern era the styling of a Ferrari has to be closely linked to the aerodynamic and performance requirements of the model. This is evident on the 360 Modena, with its two separate front air intakes, the vents ahead of the front wheel wells, and the air ducts to the rear of the car. A total of 5400 hours were spent in researching the shape in the wind tunnel. Other aerodynamic features include the flat underbody; the cut out in the front bumper that channels air beneath the car; the twin rear extractors; and the sloping rear windscreen. The result was a Cd of 0.335 and, more importantly, a negative Cz figure that gives progressively greater negative lift forces as speed increases. This force is evenly distributed between the two axles and maintains excellent balance even during variations in trim caused by acceleration or braking. All of this was accomplished without the use of winds or other external aerodynamic devices, allowing Pininfarina to keep good clean bodylines.

While Ferrari and Pininfarina are careful to invoke the images of past Ferraris in reference to the styling – the separate front air intakes made necessary by repositioning the radiators are likened to the Formula One and sports/racing cars of the early sixties; the air intakes on the rear fenders are said to recall the 250 LM; and the fast-back rear window has a long tradition on Ferrari berlinettas – all elements are also claimed to be highly functional. It is the frontal styling that has caused the most negative comments. The front fenders, which Pininfarina described as “muscular”, and the absence of the traditional central Ferrari oval grille (which at times in the past had to be “faked”) has left some observers unimpressed. It appears that Ferrari and/or Pininfarina heard such comments. Before the Geneva show ended a black license plate was added to the front of the 360 Modena’s on display, altering the appearance of the nose by adding that missing central element.

Engine

The engine powering the 360 Modena is a 90-degree V8, which has been completely redesigned to incorporate numerous innovations. Centrally mounted in-line behind the cockpit, in unit with the gearbox and differential, it has a total capacity of 3586cc, a bore of 85mm and a stroke of 79mm, and a compression ratio of 11:1. Delivering 400bhp at 8,500rpm, it produces 112bhp per litre making it the most powerful normally aspirated V8 ever built by Ferrari. It delivers a very generous peak torque figure of 38kgm at just 4,750rpm, and the torque curves even all the way up to 8,000rpm.

Combustion chamber design is new and incorporates bigger intake (three) and exhaust (two) valves, driven by four camshafts (two per bank) with hydraulic tappets. Lubrication is of the dry sump type. The main castings are in light alloy with wet steel cylinders liners, titanium connecting rods and forged aluminium pistons. Over-all weight of the motor is 184kg (495lb).

There is a particularly innovative inlet system feeding fuel separately to each cylinder bank. The Motronic ME7.3 dual engine management system, with two control units and two throttle valves that communicate through a Controlled Area Network (CAN) is the first dual system of its kind from Bosch.

The control units, small in size, take advantage of new micro-hybrid technology and are designed to function at high temperatures so they can be located near the engine. Using the position of the accelerator pedal and taking into consideration the vehicle speed, the ASR system and the F1 gearbox, the control units determine the actual throttle opening, the geometry of the variable inlet manifold, the exhaust timing and the engine control parameters.

The refined variable intake geometry intake manifold is a direct result of Formula One experience, and is clearly visible through the large rear windscreen, adding to the visual appeal of the automobile. There are two manifolds above the engine, which are connected to the underlying row of cylinders through short vertical ducts and the opposite bank of cylinders through longer ducts. Intake geometry is adjusted by two rows of throttle valves activated by the engine management control units. Air to the manifolds is supplied by the air intake in the left rear fender, which was designed to feed air in under pressure and thus produce a slight increase in power output – an extra 10 bhp at top speed. Engine noise is controlled by an acoustic baffle on the manifold. The exhaust system features variable backpressure with two valves on the silencer outlets. At low engine speeds the valves are closed, enhancing torque delivery while reducing noise to meet drive by noise emissions standards. At high engine speeds the valves open giving greater power and also increasing noise.

Gearbox

The longitudinal six-speed gearbox housing incorporates the engine oil tank in its single-piece casting, and the rear section serves to absorb impact energy. It was designed to work with either a manual gear change or with the electro-hydraulic actuated F1 system, which has been highly modified and improved on the 360 Modena. There are triple cone synchronisers on the first two gears and double cone on the others. The single dry plate clutch has coaxial hydraulic drive, and the limited slip differential has different locking percentages for acceleration and lift off.

Actuation of the F1 gearbox is by means of levers behind the steering wheel, just like on the Formula One car. When the Sport Mode is activated, the time for each single gear change is only 150 milliseconds. There are two other modes-Automatic, which requires the drive to only accelerate and brake while gear selection is automatic, and Low Grip, in which the car starts in second gear and all upshifts occur at lower engine speeds.
Taking advantage of the drive-by-wire engine management system, the 360 Modena F1 gearbox governs the accelerator completely during gear changes. While going down a gear it automatically “blips” the throttle, when changing up the system matches the best engine speed as the clutch closes. Thus both shifts are smoother and gear changes easier. With the gearbox, engine and traction control integrated the 360 Modena is significantly safer and more controllable.

Chassis

The 360 Modena features a classic Ferrari space frame chassis design. However, the structural frame members are made of extruded aluminium connected by castings where the members join. These castings allow for expansion during assembly, and also provide extra strengthening in areas subject to the greater stress. This process introduces a large number of new manufacturing and assembly technologies, which were designed specifically with the American Alcoa Company.

The specific weight of aluminium is one-third that of steel, and the weight of the overall chassis was cut by 28% despite a 10% increase in volume when compared to the F355.

Wheelbase and front track, respectively 150mm (5.9inches) longer and 155m (6.1 inches) wider than on the F355, increase cabin space, while improving stability and tyre wear. A double wishbone layout for the suspension was adopted front and rear with full kinematic properties and with anti-dive and anti-squat geometry. The upper and lower wishbones are in aluminium.

An innovative damping system was developed with Sachs. The four aluminium dampers each incorporate a solenoid, three sensors and a control unit, which also picks up car speed and braking signals from onboard sensors. A dashboard switch allows two driving programs, Sport and Normal. Using all the sensor’s input makes it possible to “brake” body movement immediately, maintain the best wheel-to-road contact, increasing grip and stability.

The steering is equipped with a non-speed-sensitive servo. The turning circle is just 10.8m (35ft 5 in) compared with 12 meters (39ft 5in) on the F355. The front tyres are smaller while the rear tyres are larger, offering advantages in handling, grip, aquaplaning and uniform wear. The alloy wheels weigh about 1kg (2.2lbs) less than the mag wheels on the F355.

Interior

Particular attention was paid to the quality of life on board the 360 Modena, starting with improved access made possible by increasing the size of the door cutout. The interior dimensions have been improved in all dimensions – length, height and width – as compared to the F355, thanks to the increased size of the car boot and redesigning the interior. In addition to the increased luggage space up front, due to the repositioning of the cooling radiators, there is also a bench behind the seats large enough for a pair of suitcases or a golf bag.





The increased use of aluminium is in evidence throughout the passenger compartment in numerous functional elements, which become styling elements as well: the tunnel, the pockets in the door panels, the driver’s pedals and the passenger’s footrest. The upholstery is available in 12 different colours to compliment the 15 exterior colours currently available and the customer can even choose the colour of stitching.

The cockpit is functional, offering the driver all the information he needs without distracting him - the layout of the dashboard puts all the main car control instruments in front of the driver with the large tachometer in the centre. The steering wheel can be adjusted for height and reach. Dual airbags are fitted. The seats have four-way manual adjustment or six-way electric adjustment on request.

Taken from the “Ferrari Market Letter” 20th March 1999.
Spider
Introduced at the 2000 Geneva motor show, the convertible or Spider version of the 360 was engineered to the highest standards to eliminate looseness or scuttle shake. The Spider gained only 60kg in strengthening and electric hood operation. This equated to.1 of second added to acceleration times and little or no difference to the maximum speed.


Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the above details, we do not warrant that such details are accurate. You are therefore advised to independently verify them for yourself


For further details or viewing kindly contact
Mike Wheeler

Copyright Mike Wheeler 2022
“This material is protected by the laws of copyright. The owner of the copyright is Mike Wheeler. These details form part of my database and are protected by the database rights and copyright laws. No unauthorised copying or distribution without my written permission”







Ordered by the then Ferrari agents, JCT 600 of Bradford on 20th March 1992 for May 1992 production. In turn order number 125 was passed to and acknowledged by the factory. Entering production on 28th May 1992 and completed twelve days later 11th June. The car was invoiced by the factory to Ferrari UK on 15th June 1992 Delivered by truck to the UK-one of 130 of which 68 remain taxed or SORN’d in the UK. Six months later on the 19th January 1993 the car was invoiced to JCT 600 as part of their stock. The car was first registered * ***
, on 8th October 1993 to Mr D T of South Wales. The then list price )1st May 1992) was Ł76,956.38 plus delivery charges, number plates and road tax.

PLEASE CONTACT MIKE WHEELER FOR MORE DETAILS AND TO ARRANGE VIEWING


The car is complete as new with factory replacement handbook, wallet, tools as well past invoices and MOT certificates. This car also benefits from the revised location of the battery to the front, thus improving weight distribution. It will also have the revised suspension set up and later ignition/injections system


History:


The convertible version of the 348 TB, with a removable hard top, was powered by the same drive-train as the berlinetta version, giving it equivalent performance. The body was again styled by Pininfarina. The impressive dynamic characteristics of both versions were so ideally suited to the race track that in 1993 a Challenge was established especially for these cars.
The 348 ts model was presented concurrently with fixed roof 348 tb at the 1989 Frankfurt Salon, and was fitted with a longitudinally mid-mounted V8 engine. The 348 in the model name referred to the 3.4 litre engine capacity and eight cylinders, whilst the “t” in the designation referred to the transverse gearbox mounted at the rear of the engine.


THE ENGINE
The engine was a twin overhead camshaft per bank, four valves per cylinder, 3.4 litre V8 unit, initially with factory type reference 119D, then 119 G, and finally 119 G040 when fitted with catalytic converters. It had a total cubic capacity of 3405cc, and a bore and stroke of 85mm x 75mm, with spark plugs between the camshafts, fitted with a Bosch Motronic M2.5 combined fuel injection and ignition system, which was upgraded to the M2.7 version during the production run. At the rear of the mid mounted engine was a transverse five speed plus reverse all synchromesh gearbox and transaxle unit.
THE DESIGN
The new model was a radical departure from the design philosophy of its predecessor, not only in the mechanical layout, but also in the style of the body, and the chassis construction. Along with the sister 348 tb model this was the first series production Ferrari not to have a separate tubular steel chassis frame. Instead it used a pressed steel chassis, with a separate tubular steel engine sub-frame bolted to it, with the body panels robot welded, and bolted, to the main structure. The wheelbase was 2450mm, and the chassis carried factory type reference F 119 AS on the ts model.
The Pininfarina designed body was essentially the same as the one on the fixed head 348 tb model, apart from the solid removable roof panel, which could be stowed under a cover behind the seats when not in use. Similarly, the interior was virtually identical to that of the concurrent 348 tb model, apart from the stowage facility for the roof behind the seats.


As with the 348 tb this targa roof model was also eligible to run in the Challenge Race Series for the 348 models, in which clients paid a set fee for a safety/performance kit and track support for the season. The 348 ts model ceased production in 1993 with the announcement of the updated 348 GTS, during the production period a total of 4228 examples were produced in the chassis number range 81651 to 96964, which was approximately one third more than the fixed roof model.

Taken from Ferrari’s own website
The convertible version of the 348 TB, with a removable hard top, was powered by the same drive-train as the berlinetta version, giving it equivalent performance. The body was again styled by Pininfarina. The impressive dynamic characteristics of both versions were so ideally suited to the race track that in 1993 a Challenge was established especially for these cars.
The 348 ts model was presented concurrently with fixed roof 348 tb at the 1989 Frankfurt Salon, and was fitted with a longitudinally mid-mounted V8 engine. The 348 in the model name referred to the 3.4 litre engine capacity and eight cylinders, whilst the “t” in the designation referred to the transverse gearbox mounted at the rear of the engine.


THE ENGINE
The engine was a twin overhead camshaft per bank, four valves per cylinder, 3.4 litre V8 unit, initially with factory type reference 119D, then 119 G, and finally 119 G040 when fitted with catalytic converters. It had a total cubic capacity of 3405cc, and a bore and stroke of 85mm x 75mm, with spark plugs between the camshafts, fitted with a Bosch Motronic M2.5 combined fuel injection and ignition system, which was upgraded to the M2.7 version during the production run. At the rear of the mid mounted engine was a transverse five speed plus reverse all synchromesh gearbox and transaxle unit.
THE DESIGN
The new model was a radical departure from the design philosophy of its predecessor, not only in the mechanical layout, but also in the style of the body, and the chassis construction. Along with the sister 348 tb model this was the first series production Ferrari not to have a separate tubular steel chassis frame. Instead it used a pressed steel chassis, with a separate tubular steel engine sub-frame bolted to it, with the body panels robot welded, and bolted, to the main structure. The wheelbase was 2450mm, and the chassis carried factory type reference F 119 AS on the ts model.
The Pininfarina designed body was essentially the same as the one on the fixed head 348 tb model, apart from the solid removable roof panel, which could be stowed under a cover behind the seats when not in use. Similarly, the interior was virtually identical to that of the concurrent 348 tb model, apart from the stowage facility for the roof behind the seats.


As with the 348 tb this targa roof model was also eligible to run in the Challenge Race Series for the 348 models, in which clients paid a set fee for a safety/performance kit and track support for the season. The 348 ts model ceased production in 1993 with the announcement of the updated 348 GTS, during the production period a total of 4228 examples were produced in the chassis number range 81651 to 96964, which was approximately one third more than the fixed roof model.

Taken from Ferrari’s own website


The convertible version of the 348 TB, with a removable hard top, was powered by the same drive-train as the berlinetta version, giving it equivalent performance. The body was again styled by Pininfarina. The impressive dynamic characteristics of both versions were so ideally suited to the race track that in 1993 a Challenge was established especially for these cars.
The 348 ts model was presented concurrently with fixed roof 348 tb at the 1989 Frankfurt Salon, and was fitted with a longitudinally mid-mounted V8 engine. The 348 in the model name referred to the 3.4 litre engine capacity and eight cylinders, whilst the “t” in the designation referred to the transverse gearbox mounted at the rear of the engine.


THE ENGINE
The engine was a twin overhead camshaft per bank, four valves per cylinder, 3.4 litre V8 unit, initially with factory type reference 119D, then 119 G, and finally 119 G040 when fitted with catalytic converters. It had a total cubic capacity of 3405cc, and a bore and stroke of 85mm x 75mm, with spark plugs between the camshafts, fitted with a Bosch Motronic M2.5 combined fuel injection and ignition system, which was upgraded to the M2.7 version during the production run. At the rear of the mid mounted engine was a transverse five speed plus reverse all synchromesh gearbox and transaxle unit.
THE DESIGN
The new model was a radical departure from the design philosophy of its predecessor, not only in the mechanical layout, but also in the style of the body, and the chassis construction. Along with the sister 348 tb model this was the first series production Ferrari not to have a separate tubular steel chassis frame. Instead it used a pressed steel chassis, with a separate tubular steel engine sub-frame bolted to it, with the body panels robot welded, and bolted, to the main structure. The wheelbase was 2450mm, and the chassis carried factory type reference F 119 AS on the ts model.
The Pininfarina designed body was essentially the same as the one on the fixed head 348 tb model, apart from the solid removable roof panel, which could be stowed under a cover behind the seats when not in use. Similarly, the interior was virtually identical to that of the concurrent 348 tb model, apart from the stowage facility for the roof behind the seats.


As with the 348 tb this targa roof model was also eligible to run in the Challenge Race Series for the 348 models, in which clients paid a set fee for a safety/performance kit and track support for the season. The 348 ts model ceased production in 1993 with the announcement of the updated 348 GTS, during the production period a total of 4228 examples were produced in the chassis number range 81651 to 96964, which was approximately one third more than the fixed roof model.

Taken from Ferrari’s own website
The convertible version of the 348 TB, with a removable hard top, was powered by the same drive-train as the berlinetta version, giving it equivalent performance. The body was again styled by Pininfarina. The impressive dynamic characteristics of both versions were so ideally suited to the race track that in 1993 a Challenge was established especially for these cars.
The 348 ts model was presented concurrently with fixed roof 348 tb at the 1989 Frankfurt Salon, and was fitted with a longitudinally mid-mounted V8 engine. The 348 in the model name referred to the 3.4 litre engine capacity and eight cylinders, whilst the “t” in the designation referred to the transverse gearbox mounted at the rear of the engine.


THE ENGINE
The engine was a twin overhead camshaft per bank, four valves per cylinder, 3.4 litre V8 unit, initially with factory type reference 119D, then 119 G, and finally 119 G040 when fitted with catalytic converters. It had a total cubic capacity of 3405cc, and a bore and stroke of 85mm x 75mm, with spark plugs between the camshafts, fitted with a Bosch Motronic M2.5 combined fuel injection and ignition system, which was upgraded to the M2.7 version during the production run. At the rear of the mid mounted engine was a transverse five speed plus reverse all synchromesh gearbox and transaxle unit.
THE DESIGN
The new model was a radical departure from the design philosophy of its predecessor, not only in the mechanical layout, but also in the style of the body, and the chassis construction. Along with the sister 348 tb model this was the first series production Ferrari not to have a separate tubular steel chassis frame. Instead it used a pressed steel chassis, with a separate tubular steel engine sub-frame bolted to it, with the body panels robot welded, and bolted, to the main structure. The wheelbase was 2450mm, and the chassis carried factory type reference F 119 AS on the ts model.
The Pininfarina designed body was essentially the same as the one on the fixed head 348 tb model, apart from the solid removable roof panel, which could be stowed under a cover behind the seats when not in use. Similarly, the interior was virtually identical to that of the concurrent 348 tb model, apart from the stowage facility for the roof behind the seats.


As with the 348 tb this targa roof model was also eligible to run in the Challenge Race Series for the 348 models, in which clients paid a set fee for a safety/performance kit and track support for the season. The 348 ts model ceased production in 1993 with the announcement of the updated 348 GTS, during the production period a total of 4228 examples were produced in the chassis number range 81651 to 96964, which was approximately one third more than the fixed roof model.

Taken from Ferrari’s own website
The convertible version of the 348 TB, with a removable hard top, was powered by the same drive-train as the berlinetta version, giving it equivalent performance. The body was again styled by Pininfarina. The impressive dynamic characteristics of both versions were so ideally suited to the race track that in 1993 a Challenge was established especially for these cars.
The 348 ts model was presented concurrently with fixed roof 348 tb at the 1989 Frankfurt Salon, and was fitted with a longitudinally mid-mounted V8 engine. The 348 in the model name referred to the 3.4 litre engine capacity and eight cylinders, whilst the “t” in the designation referred to the transverse gearbox mounted at the rear of the engine.


THE ENGINE
The engine was a twin overhead camshaft per bank, four valves per cylinder, 3.4 litre V8 unit, initially with factory type reference 119D, then 119 G, and finally 119 G040 when fitted with catalytic converters. It had a total cubic capacity of 3405cc, and a bore and stroke of 85mm x 75mm, with spark plugs between the camshafts, fitted with a Bosch Motronic M2.5 combined fuel injection and ignition system, which was upgraded to the M2.7 version during the production run. At the rear of the mid mounted engine was a transverse five speed plus reverse all synchromesh gearbox and transaxle unit.
THE DESIGN
The new model was a radical departure from the design philosophy of its predecessor, not only in the mechanical layout, but also in the style of the body, and the chassis construction. Along with the sister 348 tb model this was the first series production Ferrari not to have a separate tubular steel chassis frame. Instead it used a pressed steel chassis, with a separate tubular steel engine sub-frame bolted to it, with the body panels robot welded, and bolted, to the main structure. The wheelbase was 2450mm, and the chassis carried factory type reference F 119 AS on the ts model.
The Pininfarina designed body was essentially the same as the one on the fixed head 348 tb model, apart from the solid removable roof panel, which could be stowed under a cover behind the seats when not in use. Similarly, the interior was virtually identical to that of the concurrent 348 tb model, apart from the stowage facility for the roof behind the seats.


As with the 348 tb this targa roof model was also eligible to run in the Challenge Race Series for the 348 models, in which clients paid a set fee for a safety/performance kit and track support for the season. The 348 ts model ceased production in 1993 with the announcement of the updated 348 GTS, during the production period a total of 4228 examples were produced in the chassis number range 81651 to 96964, which was approximately one third more than the fixed roof model.

Taken from Ferrari’s own website


Announced at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 1989, the 348 is the first Ferrari of the 1990. It is the fruit of the last 40 years-plus experience, and expresses the most modern technical concepts of safety and style in the field of automobiles. The most significant features are above all, sporting performance in terms of acceleration, maximum speed, handling in all conditions and the unmistakable Ferrari lines.
As far as the mechanical layout is concerned, the 348 is a two-seater sports car with a longitudinally mid-mounted engine, all round independent suspension and ventilated disc brakes with an anti-locking system. One important design feature is the transverse gearbox (which is represented in the name on the TB and TS versions). All of the solutions adopted - from the geometry of the suspension, to the V-8 3.4-litre engine, to the aerodynamics and the structure of the chassis - have been designed to achieve optimum performance and stem from research and experiments carried out by Ferrari in both the area of GT cars and competition cars.
As far as the design of the bodywork is concerned, Ferrari turned, as usual, to Pininfarina who have a clear view of the requirements when a new car for the "Prancing Horse" stable is being designed. The development of new bodywork is the outcome of research into archetypes of Ferrari production. The 348 has several stylistic themes of the Testarossa, the most obvious of which is the horizontal grille found on the doors which channels the air towards the rear radiator intakes. This demonstrates that on a Ferrari a technical requirement becomes a stylistic theme and nothing is simply there for decoration. Another traditional stylistic element is the view of the front section, which recalls prestigious sporting models of the past such as the 375MM, 196P, 250P, 275LM and the 330 P3 not to mention the extremely current F40.

Accurate preliminary studies and lengthy tests in the wind tunnel have made it possible to combine exclusive lines with extremely efficient aerodynamics with excellent drag co-efficient figures.
The concept behind the design of the chassis for the new vehicle was to obtain a totally resistant structure optimising weight and torsional and flexing resistance combined with the vehicle's features and performance. This result was achieved by using the most advanced construction techniques and the modern development of simple tubular frames and later lattice types which Ferrari have developed for racing cars.
The power unit and the rear suspension are supported by a lattice type tubular sub-frame, which is fixed to the main frame allowing the power unit and the suspension to be easily fitted and checked.
The layout of the mechanical components and main services with the engine mounted on the longitudinal axis, centrally at the rear - the transverse gearbox, the fuel tank in the centre and the water and oil radiators at the side - have made it possible to reduce the polar moment on inertia in favour or manoeuvrability.
The suspension has been designed with the requirements of a high performance car in mind. The suspension arms, which form a parallelogram for each suspension are made from pressed steel and the steering knuckles are made of forged aluminium. This means a reduction in the unsprung weight.
In order to improve road holding wide tyres are fitted on 16" wheel rims and gas shock absorbers are utilised. The geometry of the front suspension has been designed with the "anti-dive" function in mind and the timing of the front and rear suspension frequency is a product of Ferrari's experience in this field.
The extremely low centre of gravity also enhances road-holding qualities. It has been made possible thanks to the new design of the power unit which has allowed the mass of the unit to be lowered by 13cm compared with the transverse version.
The braking system reflects the experiences and developments with racing cars. The callipers are made of aluminium with twin cylinders, which are a new feature in series produced vehicles. Aluminium brake callipers are lighter (and therefore assist the reduction of the unsprung weight) and increase the dissipation of thermal energy, which improves the operation of the braking system. The front discs have a diameter of 300mm and are 28mm thick; the rear brakes (which incorporate the handbrake device) have a diameter of 305mm and are 24mm thick. The servo-assisted braking system is also fitted with an anti-locking device.
The 90 V-8 engine is longitudinally mid-mounted. It has a capacity of 3405cc bore and stroke 85 x 75mm and the compression ratio is 10.4:1. The sophisticated design of the combustion chamber with four valves with the spark plug at the centre has made it possible to optimise volumetric filling and thermo-dynamic efficiency. The engine has a power output of 221kW (300bhp) at 7200rpm and a maximum torque of 323Nm (33kgm) at 4200rpm. The specific power, which is close to 90hp per litre, is a significant result. Amongst the notable technical features, is the construction of the cylinder head and block from light alloy with steel liners coated in Nicasil, (directly in contact with the coolant), the crankshaft on five main bearing supports with the crank at 180, the tappets with clearance adjustment pads, the dry sump lubrication with an 8-litre lubrication reservoir, copper radiators with two thermostatically controlled fans and an expansion tank and thermostat. The electronic management of both the ignition and injection is by a double-integrated Bosch Motronic M2.5 system, which effectively controls each bank of cylinders separately. The system incorporates a hot wire device for measuring the mass of inducted air. The inlet duct geometry provides variable resonance characteristics.
Each bank of cylinders has a manifold and an airflow metre and two systems can function independently; however, at the centre of the ducts there is a connecting passage closed by a butterfly valve whose opening is determined by a command sent by the electronic unit running the entire system.

For each of the two positions (butterfly valve open or closed) there is a corresponding different arrangement for the ducts, which varies according to the engine speed. The particular shape of the intake trumpets (two per cylinder), located inside the manifolds contributes to improving the dynamic flows.
The ignition is of the static advance type with advance curves stored in the memory of the electronic control unit. For each row of four cylinders there is a high-tension unit with two coils, each with twin outlets for supplying the four spark plugs.
At the end of the 1974 season Ferrari introduced a new F1 single seater with the identification letter 312T. As in previous models the number part was made up of a first figure which represented the cubic capacity (3-litres) and the other two figures standing for the cylinders (12).
The novelty was the letter "t" standing for the word "trasversale" which stood for a completely new transmission where the conical idler gear was positioned at the intake for the gearbox, which had become transverse, coining a new type.
Although transverse gearboxes had already been used in the past (for example on the Ferrari D50 derived from the Lancia of Jano) the one fitted on the 312T was the first time the transverse transmission formed a block with the central engine.
The single seater "T" series cars had a very successful racing career: Niki Lauda won the World Championship title in 1975 and 1977 and Jody Scheckter won it in 1979; the car won the Manufacturer's Championship in 1975, 1976, 1977 and 1979.
The transmission of the power to the wheels takes place by means of a completely new system, located on the transverse gearbox. The engine flywheel is no longer at the end of the crankshaft but has been moved in relation to the clutch, which projects at the rear and is connected to the engine by a shaft, which crosses the gearbox. The diameter of the clutch plates is 8-1/2".
The flywheel is of the "bimass" type with an internal oscillation damper. The dry clutch is hydraulically operated and at the clutch outlet there is a cylindrical idler gear and then a 90 conical idler gear, which transmits the power to the gearbox. The gearbox with five forward speeds and reverse has new type synchronisers and is connected to the differential by a cylindrical idler gear. The differential is of the limited slip type calibrated at 40%.
Ferrari have mounted the rear clutch outside the gearbox since 1960 with the design of a new single seater for Formula 2 racing with a six-cylinder 65 V formation 1500cc engine which became the F1 in 1961. The American Phil Hill won the World Championship title in 1961 with this car.
The aim of this solution was two-fold: on the one hand it made this part of the transmission, which in racing cars is subject to a great deal of stress, very accessible, thereby facilitating checking and repairs; on the other hand, it greatly improve cooling and therefore endurance.
The external control was carried out by means of a central actuator. Currently on the 348 a hydraulically operated ring piston is used instead which has the merit of making the clutch operation extremely light. The 348 is capable of 0-100kph in 5.6 seconds and has a top speed in excess of 275kph (172mph).

Taken from ‘Ferrari Market Letter’
Volume 14 No 19, 16th September 1989.

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